I Naiveli & Co

Some entities are required by law to be audited. These include listed companies, overseas-owned companies, large companies, and those with 10 or more shareholders (there are provisions for opting out in some cases).

Registered charities with expenses of over $1.1m per annum in each of its two preceding financial years must be audited, but charities with expenses between $550,000 and $1.1m may opt for a Review Engagement rather than an Audit. This provides a lesser degree of assurance than a full audit, but will often be a cheaper option (unless the records are untidy – in which case the work may well need to be extended) and be entirely adequate in most cases.

From financial years beginning 1 April 2015 and after there were specific reporting requirements for charities and non-profits. Over 95% of the 27,000 NZ registered charities fall into “Tier 3″(expenses under $2 million) and “Tier 4” (expenses under $140,000 p.a) Public Benefit Entity reporting.

Of these, only charities with annual expenditure over $1.1million in each of its two preceding financial years will be required to be audited (the larger “Tier 3” entities), and those with over $550k in each of its two preceding financial years may opt for a Review or an Audit. However, there are many smaller entities who, while not required by regulation to be audited or reviewed, are currently audited or reviewed because of:

  1. the comfort level it provides to their members
  2. the requirements of their funders or
  3. the stipulation of their founding documents

What does a Review provide?

The focus of a Review Engagement is on identifying material or potentially material items and designing appropriate tests in terms of analytical review, enquiry and substantive testing if necessary. Like an audit, the preparation of the financial statements is the responsibility of those who run the entity. Also like and Audit, risks are identified then appropriate procedures are devised to test these material or potentially material items.

These procedures include analytical review (comparing results to predictive and corroborating evidence), enquiry, confirmation letters for use where needed, and substantive (more detailed) testing tools if required.

The Review Report confirms that the financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the correct accounting framework, and that nothing has come to the attention of the reviewer that indicates a problem with the financial statements.

What does an Audit provide?

An audit provides a positive assurance that the financial statements provide a “true and fair” view. To provide this extra assurance a greater degree of understanding, analysis and testing is required than with a review.

Risk is assessed in greater detail, systems of internal control are explored in greater depth and there is a greater emphasis on external confirmations, sampling and testing of details.

Who can I get to perform an Audit or Review?

To ensure that your work is being performed to proper standards, you should seek a reputable firm that has a knowledge of the applicable standards. Click the links above to access websites of firms that use Audit Assistant (NOTE: not all our users are listed here yet – if you are in an area not listed contact us and we will send you details of the closest firm to your area).